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All Things Ampersand

Mounting flexible supports to panel, an archival practice by Andrea Pramuk


• Claybord™, Hardbord™ or Gessobord™ 1/8˝ flat, 3/4˝ cradled or 2˝ deep cradle
• Primed or un-primed canvas or linen
• 2˝ paint brush or trowel
• Golden® Soft Gel Gloss Medium or Lineco Neutral pH Adhesive
• Golden® GAC100 to size Hardbord™
• X-acto™ Knife
• Damp cloth or paper towels
• Rubber brayer or plastic squeegee

• Large heavy board

• Water jugs or heavy weights

Many artists today choose to mount their flexible canvas or paper to rigid supports for a number of reasons. One is to preserve the painting qualities of canvas or paper while gaining the advantages of painting on a panel. The other is that flexible supports are more susceptible to changes in temperature and humidity that can contribute to deterioration of the paint film over time. You can counteract the instability of fabrics and paper and make your paintings more archival by mounting flexible supports on an Ampersand™ panel.

There are many ways to mount a flexible support to a panel. I chose the archival practice that was easiest to do and worked the best. The materials suggested can be mixed and matched in order to suit your purposes. For example, you may substitute paper for the canvas or the Lineco adhesive for the Golden® soft gel medium. After a few attempts, you will develop your own personal preferences.

Ampersand Claybord™ and Gessobord™ are the easiest, least labor-intensive choices in archival substrates for mounting. Because both panels are sealed with the Archiva-Seal™ barrier and then primed with acid-free grounds, it is only necessary to apply adhesive since no sealing is required. Hardbord™ and other types of un-primed woods like plywood, on the other hand, do require sealing—see the extra step. Another time saver is to choose a pre-primed canvas or linen so you don’t have to gesso or prime after mounting the fabric to the panel.

1. Begin by trimming the fabric to size. Allow for a 2˝ overlap around the panel (not shown). Note: if you plan to wrap the canvas around the panel, you will need to seal the edges and back of the panel with GAC100 (see Extra Step at bottom). Otherwise, go straight to step 2.


2. To maximize adhesion, thin the Golden soft gel medium with a little water and apply it over the front of the panel (Lineco, not necessary). Be sure to coat the sides of the panel so that the fabric adheres properly all the way to the edge. I usually apply extra gel medium or glue at the four corners because they are the most vulnerable to lifting. Keep applying medium or glue until you have a fairly thick evenly wet coat. Quickly move to the next step.

3. With the fabric ground side face down, position the panel wet glue-side down in the center and press down firmly. Clean any extra glue off the back with a damp towel to prevent your panel from sticking underneath while drying (3a). Flip over the canvas together with the panel and go over the surface from the center out using a rubber brayer or squeegee to remove any wrinkles, lumps or air pockets (3b).





4. Cover the face of the fabric with either wax paper or butcher paper (something that will not stick to the glue) and place a heavy larger board over the top. I used a larger shrink-wrapped panel. Weight the board down with jugs of water or something heavy and allow it to dry overnight (not shown). If you’re doing multiple panels at once, place wax paper or butcher paper in between the panels. Use the larger board with weights at the very top of the stack.


5. The next day, take out your panels and place them one at a time face down on a clean surface for cutting. Using a fresh X-acto™ knife, cut flush around the edges for a perfect and clean look (5a). If you would rather wrap your corners (1/8˝ panels only), apply gel medium or glue to the back where the fabric will overlap and quickly pull the corners in to fold (5b). Brayer or squeegee over the folds to smooth. Clean up excess glue with a wet towel. No weight is necessary in this step, but do allow the panel to dry thoroughly. The panels will be safe to paint on or gesso in 1-3 days. Extra Step: When using Hardbord™ or any other un-primed wood panels as your substrate, follow the same instructions above, but add this important step first. It is important to correctly seal all un-primed wood substrates to prevent support-induced discoloration that can cause your paint film to yellow over time.





Extra Step: When using Hardbord™ or any other un-primed wood panels as your substrate, follow the same instructions above, but add this important step first. It is important to correctly seal all un-primed wood substrates to prevent support-induced discoloration that can cause your paint film to yellow over time.

Apply Golden GAC100 directly to the Hardbord with the 2˝ paint brush or trowel. Allow the GAC100 to dry completely and follow with an additional coat. Do not sand between layers.

Before applying the adhesive in Step 2, allow the GAC100 to dry for 1-3 days so that the sealer can coalesce into a uniform film for maximum protection.

Click here for a downloadable PDF version of this article.

A discussion with Ampersand about using Egg Tempera on Claybord


First, we always recommend Claybord for Egg Tempera. Here’s why:

1) It has a very absorbent ground that is made with kaolin clay. Claybord provides a very smooth and absorbent surface similar, in behavior only, to a “traditional” non-acrylic gesso ground or the chalk grounds used during the Renaissance. Over the years, we have continued to increase the absorbency of the Claybord.

2) We have never used rabbit skin glue in the Claybord formula. Our tests showed that Claybord’s clay ground, when made with a minimal amount of polymer binder instead of rabbit skin glue, holds to the substrate much more effectively. Note the added plus of Ampersand’s “Archiva Seal” barrier technology. Prior to applying the absorbent clay ground to the substrate, we seal the rigid hardboard with our panel sealers to ensure that over time, you do not experience support induced discoloration that can come from a poorly prepared wood panel.

3) We have strong relationships with many professional egg tempera artists that use Claybord successfully for their work. We have received only a couple of calls over the years about lifting, but in talking further to the concerned artists and other egg tempera painters, we have found that individual technique is most likely the cause, not the painting surface.

Examples of exquisite artwork by artists using egg tempera on Claybord:  Ampersand Online Gallery (egg tempera only).

Listed below are a few good practices to follow when working with egg tempera on Claybord and most other surfaces. These practices are provided by artists who use Claybord exclusively for their work as well as from Robert Massey’s book, Formulas for Painters
The important keys to working with egg tempera on Claybord are:
a) How you apply the first layers of paint and
b) Ensuring that you allow each layer to dry before beginning any fine detail work

When using egg tempera, begin by using three to four thin washes of paint over the entire panel, allowing them to dry thoroughly in between. The first four layers should dry overnight to allow good adhesion for subsequent layers. Use a very large brush and stay away from detail work in the beginning stages. After the preparatory layers are finished, alternate to smaller brushes. Continue painting in thin layers, allowing adequate drying time in between. Gradually increase the paint thickness as the layers develop. Repeat the previous step many times, gradually narrowing the size of the brush as the painting progresses. The paint consistency in the final stages should be relatively thick so that the vibrancy and character of egg tempera is thoroughly enhanced. After adequate drying time is complete, buff the finished painting with a soft cloth and frame as desired.

Much of the information about Claybord located on the Society of Tempera Painter’s Website is incorrect.  We are working with them to resolve the problem.

With regard to using hardboard as a substrate, a thorough discussion is provided here on the Ampersand Website.

Also, with regard to rabbit skin glue, here is an article we found interesting written by Virgil Elliott. 

We welcome your questions and comments. Feel free to post them here or contact us directly.

How to Print Etchings on Claybord or Aquabord by Charles Ewing

“Old Bones”, etching printed on Claybord by Charles Ewing


Printing a zinc or copper plate etching (or drypoint) onto the clay surface of Claybord or Aquabord has three distinct advantages over printing on paper:

• The permanence of the print: Claybord is an archival surface<
• The ability to rework prints with mistakes or add finishing details and colors
• Glass free presentation

A matte acrylic varnish or spray fixative like Krylon® UV Resistant Clear Coating #1309 (Matte) or #1305 (Gloss) sprayed on the Claybord works well and seems to bring out the relief caused by the clay pressing into the etched lines of the plate. The following exercise is a great place to start.


1. Etch a zinc or copper plate as you would for printing on paper except for: a. Avoid deep wide lines as the clay pressing into the line cannot “reach” the ink in the bottom of the etched lines. b. Use as thin a metal plate as will take your depth of etching and bevel the edges. The thicker plates seem to be pushed by the press, digging into the clay surface.

2. Choose an appropriate Claybord size and determine the placement of the image. Sand the edges to prevent damage to the press blankets. If Aquabord is used, the surface should be lightly sanded.
3. Using matboard or thick paper (should be same or slightly thinner than the metal plate), cut a template with outside dimensions the same as the Claybord, with an opening the size of the plate cut into it for consistent positioning of the image during the edition. This also keeps the plate from moving on the clay surface.

4. Ink and wipe the plate as you would for a paper print.
5. Thoroughly wet and sponge dry each piece of Claybord before printing, removing all excess water with the sponge.

6. Place the damp Claybord, clay side up, on the bed of the press. Position the template on top and carefully drop the metal plate into the opening image side down.

7. Print with moderately-heavy pressure to force the softened clay into the etched lines to pick up the ink. Allow to dry thoroughly.

8. Any ink smudges around the image can be cleaned off with fine oil-free steel wool (0000). The image itself can be redefined or manipulated with scratching tools.

9. Varnish with spray fixative like Krylon® UV Resistant Clear Coating #1309 (Matte) or #1305 (Gloss) and frame without glass and matting if desired.

About Charles Ewing, inventor of Claybord


Charles, a versatile artist with diverse interests in media as well as subject matter, is known for his figurative paintings of people, wildlife and nature. Along with his extensive use of oils, he works in a unique medium of his invention known as Claybord. He has also been instrumental in developing new printmaking techniques and enjoys the third dimension of bronze sculpture.

Charles was born and raised in Albuquerque, New Mexico and now resides near the south San Juan mountains of Southern Colorado. An avid outdoorsman, Charles’ paintings of nature and wildlife come largely from personal observation, each year spending many weeks on horseback in the nearby wilderness areas. Travels in Latin America and Europe have also offered much inspiration for his work. He is collected widely and shows in several Southwest galleries. http://www.charlesewing.com
This etching process is fully illustrated along with a number of other printing and painting techniques on Claybord in Charles Ewing’s book, The New Scratchboard available at Amazon. http://www.amazon.com/New-Scratchboard-Charles-Ewing/dp/08230465833


Charles Ewing discusses the invention of Claybord“The invention of Claybord, as with most new products, was developed out of necessity. I loved the scratchboard drawing technique, being able to create highlights by scratching off the black ink to expose the white clay underneath, however the traditional scratchboard left much to be desired as a fine art surface. It was much too fragile both in the versatility of technique as well as in framed presentation requiring one to glue the thin cardboard to a flat stiff hardboard to keep it flat and to protect the soft surface with glass.

I was able to eliminate these problems by developing a clay coated panel which, unlike scratchboard, would readily accept very wet applications of water media, such as India ink washes, without hurting the clay layer and which could simply be varnished and framed without glass like an oil painting. I made these panels for my own use one or two at a time for ten years before my wife and I decided to bring them to market, first making them on a very limited scale in an old adobe shed behind the house. Later, we helped Ampersand Art Supply in Austin, Texas create and manufacture Claybord for the national and international art materials market.”

Tips For Screen Printing on Claybord™ by Franz Spohn



Ampersand’s Claybord™ is a wonderful surface for screen printing. This ultra smooth rigid panel will not stretch or change during the printing process ensuring perfect registration every time. Warping, tearing, and shrinking are virtually eliminated from the printing process. Claybord holds up to heavy saturations of transparent color and very wet applications. The smoothness of the board allows you achieve incredible detail and allows you to reduce the dot size when using a finer mesh screen. Claybord’s unique clay coating also allows the artist to handwork each print and scratch back into the surface for unique prints or details not achievable on paper. Claybord accepts all types of printer’s inks and is so much easier to handle than paper in terms of drying and storing. When finished, your prints are ready to frame without any additional work. If this is your first time trying out Claybord for screen printing, the following tips will help you achieve successful results.

Prepping the Claybord

Claybord is a very absorbent surface. The kaolin clay will dull out your first layers of color whether working in oil-based or water-based inks, so I recommend sealing the surface first. However, please note that if you decide not to seal the Claybord, you can achieve a variety of interesting and layered effects without sealing. I primarily work with waterbased inks. I first seal the Claybord surface by screen printing a thin, even flat layer of Speedball Overprint Varnish. This seals the surface and prepares it to accept the inks so that they don’t soak into the surface.

Creating a Registration Jig



Claybord is a 1/8″ thick rigid panel. In order to facilitate printing and to ensure perfect registration, I create a jig that will hold the Claybord in place while I’m screen printing. If I’m working with an 8×10 image, I cut down another 8×10 Claybord resulting in four 1″ strips. I then place the 8×10 Claybord that I’m going to print, on a sturdy piece of mylar(.01 thickness). Your piece of mylar has to be large enough to stick out from under the screen because you will use it to align the board with the stencil on the screen. Place the cut strips around the 8×10 on the mylar and mark their position. Glue them down to the mylar with epoxy glue making sure that when you’re done, the 8×10 fits snugly into the jig as illustrated. You’ll want to leave a side of the jig without stripping so that you can easily lift the board from the jig (as illustrated). To register, simply insert a panel in the jig, place under the screen, and use the edges of the mylar sticking out from under the screen to align the board with your stencil. Tape the mylar securely to the printing surface and use to register for subsequent panels. The registration jig also provides a transitional support on which to start and end the squeegee during the printing process. Without this, the squeegee will move the panels or stress the screen fabric and stencil when the blade of the squeegee comes in contact with the edge of the panel resulting in mis-registration and distortion of the image.

Helpful Printing Tips

Print off contact.

Elevate the front of the screen with a 1/4″ piece of foam board so that the fabric of the screen is not touching the surface of the Claybord. This enables the snap back of the fabric when I’m printing and keeps the Claybord
from sticking to the screen.

Don’t use excessive pressure or speed to print.
Claybord’s surface is so smooth and if sealed as recommended, the inks do not absorb into the surface. Therefore the inks will bleed into the non-image areas if too much pressure is applied with the squeegee. If you are concerned that your details will dry up, then use adequate amounts of ink retarder rather than relying on hard pressure to keep your inks open. Also, make sure to use a squeegee with a nice, sharp blade.



Create your own easy to handle drying rack (as shown).
Claybord is really easy to handle and dry since it is rigid unlike paper. You can create a simple drying rack with a board and upright supporting dowel rods. An edition of 20 can dry on a constructed board that is about 15″ and can be placed right next to the printing area within arm’s reach – much more convenient than a drying rack or line. Also, it is much more expedient than trying to find enough table surface to lay out the prints.

Other Exciting Possibilities

Ampersand also has Black Scratchbord™ that is great to print on with Speedball’s opaque fabric inks. You can use this surface one of two ways.
1. Scratch and Then Print: You can use etching tools to scratch in the image on the Scratchbord as you would for traditional scratchboard, revealing the white. Then, use transparent inks to screen colors onto the white image.
2. Print and Then Scratch: Speedball’s opaque fabric inks work splendidly on the board. I like to use the black of the surface to create the linear element so that the stencils print the “fill-in” shapes with color. The opaque fabric inks are dense enough to cover the black of the Scratchbord and have a shimmering or opalescent effect. Then, an additional scratched texture can be applied to enhance the overall effect.
3. Cut outs and Printing: Another advantage of printing on the boards is that the printed shapes can be cut out with a scroll saw and incorporated in constructions. The boards or other pieces can be screwed, glued or otherwise attached to create box-less shadow boxes, tableaux or very hardy “pop-up” books. Consider the construction elements in Red Groom’s or Frank Stella’s dimensional prints.

Biography Franz Spohn


Franz Spohn earned his M.F.A. from the Ohio State University in screen printing and drawing in 1975. Franz is currently among the tenured art faculty at the Edinboro University of Pennsylvania where he teaches screen printing. Franz has exhibited widely in solo and group exhibitions nationally and internationally in both museum and commercial gallery venues including The Museum of Arts and Design in NYC, The Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Glenbow Museum in Calgary, Alberta, Pacifico Gallery in NYC and The Marian Lockes Gallery in Philadelphia. Among Franz’s illustration credits are children’s books and book covers for Bantam, Doubleday and Dell publishers. Commissioned projects include works for The National Science Museum in London and the Department of Parks and Recreation in NYC. Franz is the host and co-producer of the instructional video series Eureka! The Creative Art Series, seen on many PBS stations nationally and in Canada and he is the recipient of an NEA grant. Franz regularly presents workshops and lectures throughout the United States and Canada.